A tomboy is a girl who exhibits some characteristics and or behavior considered typical of the gender role of a boy, including the wearing of typically masculine-oriented types of clothes and engaging in games and activities that are often physical in nature, and which are considered in many cultures to be the domain of boys.
Historically, tomboys have been defined by their less feminine style of dress including the wearing of boys' clothes, as well as being more physically active than other girls. They have also been noted to demonstrate a stronger interest in science and technology. In recent times, as the ubiquity of traditionally female clothing such as dresses, blouses and skirts has declined among Western females, the distinction has become more and more one of behavior. A general increase in the popularity of women's sporting events (see Title IX) and other activities that were traditionally male-dominated, is today broadening tolerance and lessening the impact of "tomboy" as a pejorative.
There is a perceived correlation between tomboys and lesbianism. While some tomboys later reveal a lesbian identity in their adolescent or adult years, masculine behavior typical of boys but displayed by girls is not a true indicator of one's sexual orientation.
Throughout their history, tomboys have had to contend with the stigma of presumed lesbianism or the accusation of wanting to be male. Both assumptions were categorically refuted by twentieth-century psychology, which established the normality of the tomboy experience among girls of all identities. However, for many, the tomboy stage is the first manifestation of a gender-fluid life journey.
Gender scholar Judith Halberstam has found that while the defying of gender roles is often tolerated in young girls, older girls and adolescents who display masculine traits are often repressed and punished.
There has been little study of the causality of women's behavior and interests, when they do not conform to the female social gender role, since it has been considered, first and foremost, to be a phase one might go through in early years of life. It is unclear whether there is any correlation between these behaviors, and whether the causes are any different from what causes men to exhibit the same behaviors such as dress, or an interest in mathematics and science. One report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children suggests that preschool girls engaging in "masculine-typical" gender-role behavior, such as playing with toys typically preferred by boys, is influenced by genetic and prenatal factors.
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- ↑ Tomboy in the Online Etymology Dictionary
- ↑ Who are tomboys and why should we study them? [Arch Sex Behav. 2002] - PubMed result
- ↑ SpringerLink - Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 31, Number 4
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Tomboys". glbtq.com. http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/tomboys.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ↑ Halberstam, Judith: Female Masculinity, Durham: Duke University Press, 1998.
- ↑ Study: Tomboys Born, Not Made KSBW, 12 November 2002
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