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Konstantin Makovsky, The Bulgarian martyresses, a painting depicting the atrocities of bashibazouks in Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
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Sexual assault is an assault of a sexual nature on another person. Although sexual assaults most frequently are by a man on a woman, it may be by a man on a man, woman on a man or woman on a woman, adult on a child, adult on an adult or child on a child.
While sexual assaults are associated with the crime of rape, it may cover assaults which would not be considered rape. What constitutes a sexual assault is determined by the laws of the jurisdiction where the assault takes place, which vary considerably and are influenced by local social and cultural attitudes.
Every year, an estimated 300,000 women are raped and 3.7 million are confronted with unwanted sexual activity. In addition, of the approximately 900,000 children who are maltreated each year, 9% are sexually abused. It has been estimated that one in six American women have or will be sexually assaulted during their lives. Largely because of child and prison rape, approximately ten percent of reported rape victims are male.
Sexual assault may include rape, forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration, forced sexual intercourse, inappropriate touching, forced kissing, child sexual abuse, or the torture of the victim in a sexual manner.
- intentionally touches another person (B),
- the touching is sexual,
- B does not consent to the touching, and
- A does not reasonably believe that B consents.
unwanted sexual contact that stops short of rape or attempted rape. This includes sexual touching and fondling.
Outside of law, the term rape ("an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse with another person without that person's consent") is often used interchangeably with sexual assault, a closely related (but in most jurisdictions technically distinct) form of assault typically including rape and other forms of non-consensual sexual activity.
Abbey et al. state that female victims are much more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance (such as a friend or co-worker), a dating partner, an ex-boyfriend or an intimate partner than by a complete stranger. In a study of hospital emergency room treatments for rape, Kaufman et al. state that the male victims as a group sustained more physical trauma, were more likely to have been a victim of multiple assaults from multiple assailants, and were more likely to have been held captive longer.
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Attempted rape is a failed attempt to force sexual intercourse with someone without their consent. Attempted rape under the Criminal Attempts Act 1981 is a 'sexual offence' within section 31(1) of the Criminal Justice Act 1991.YING HUI TAN, Barrister (Tuesday, 12 January 1993 accessdate=27 October 2010). "Law Report: Attempted rape came within definition of 'sexual offence': Regina v Robinson - Court of Appeal (Criminal Divisional) (Lord Taylor of Gosforth, Lord Chief Justice, Mr Justice Potts and Mr Justice Judge), 27 November 1992". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/law-report-attempted-rape-came-within-definition-of-sexual-offence-regina-v-robinson--court-of-appeal-criminal-divisional-lord-taylor-of-gosforth-lord-chief-justice-mr-justice-potts-and-mr-justice-judge-27-november-1992-1478119.html. Sexual Harassment is also closely related. This may include leering, pressure for dates, pressing or rubbing against a person, obscene phone calls, bra snapping, wolf-whistles, lip-smacking, indecent exposure, sexual discrimination, displaying explicit materials, sexist jokes, unwanted grabbing, comments about person's body, soliciting sexual services.
Traumatic events such as rape and sexual assault have, aside from obvious physical traumas, profound long-term psychological effects on all victims including but not limited to children who are assault victims. These include: denial, helplessness, dislike of sex, anger, self-blame, anxiety, shame, nightmares, fear, depression, flashbacks, guilt, rationalization, mood-swings, numbness, promiscuity, lonliness, social anxiety, difficulty trusting yourself or others, difficulty concentrating. Family and friends experience emotional scarring including a strong desire for revenge, a desire to "fix' the problem and/or move on, and a rationalization that "it wasn't that bad".
Child sexual abuseEdit
Sexual assaults on children are normally viewed far more seriously than those on an adult. This is because of the innocence of the child victim, and also because of the long-term psychological impact that such assaults have on the child.
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography.
The effects of child sexual abuse include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest, is more common than other forms of sexual assault on a child, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.
Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, sisters and uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.
Studies have shown that the psychological damage is often particularly severe when sexual assault is committed by parents against children due to the incestuous nature of the assault. Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity for damage to a child. Often, sexual assault on a child is not reported by the child for several reasons:
- children are too young to recognize their victimization or put it into words
- they were threatened or bribed by the abuser
- they feel confused by fearing the abuser but liking the attention
- they are afraid no one will believe them
- they blame themselves or believe the abuse is a punishment
- they feel guilty for consequances to the perpetrator
Elderly sexual assaultEdit
Elderly sexual assault is victimization of persons over the age of 60, most of whom suffer from decresased functionality, frailty, and weakness and therefore are reliant on caretakers. Only 30% of people age 65 or older who are victimized report it to the police. The most common assailants are caretakers, adult children, spouses and fellow facility residents. Signs that an elder is being assaulted include increased vaginal tearing, bleeding, bruising, infection, pelvic injury, soft tissue or bone injury. Also, an altered mood might be a, indication of sexual assault. These symptoms include extreme agitation, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, withdrawal, panic attacks, STD's, exaserbation of existing illness, sleep disturbences, longer recovery times.
- R v Collins
- Sexual assault in the U.S. military
- Tailhook scandal
- 2003 U.S. Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal
- Angela Rose
- List of anti-sexual assault organizations in the United States
- ↑ Chapter 6: Female Sex Offenders, All about Female Offenders, by Katherine Ramsland.
- ↑ Assault, Black's Law Dictionary, 8th Edition. See also Ibbs v The Queen, High Court of Australia, 61 ALJR 525, 1987 WL 714908 (sexual assault defined as sexual penetration without consent); Sexual Offences Act 2003 Chapter 42 s 3 Sexual assault (United Kingdom), (sexual assault defined as sexual contact without consent), and Chase v. R. 1987 CarswellNB 25 (Supreme Court of Canada) (sexual assault defined as force without consent of a sexual nature)
- ↑ Bonnar-Kidd, K.. (2010). Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 412-9. Retrieved April 4, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1979013051). http://proquest.umi.com.proxy.seattleu.edu/pqdweb?index=4&did=1979013051&SrchMode=1&sid=7&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1270427348&clientId=19912
- ↑ Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes (1998). "Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women Survey". National Institute of Justice & Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/172837.pdf.
- ↑ cf. U.S. Department of Justice. 2003 National Crime Victimization Survey. 2003.
- ↑ Frequently Asked Questions About Women's Health: Sexual Assault, The National Women's Health Information Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- ↑ "Was I Raped?". Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/was-it-rape. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- ↑ Roberts, Albert R.; Ann Wolbert Bergess; CHERYL REGEHR (2009). Victimology: Theories and Applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 228. ISBN 978-0-7637-7210-9. http://books.google.com/?id=erFiYbLL9McC&pg=PA225&dq=definition+of+rape&q=definition%20of%20rape.
- ↑ Krantz G, Garcia-Moreno C (October 2005). "Violence against women". J Epidemiol Community Health 59 (10): 818–21. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.022756. PMC 1732916. PMID 16166351.
- ↑ "Was I Raped?". Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/was-it-rape. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- ↑ "Sapphire". Metropolitan Police Service. http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- ↑ Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 323-332."Similarities and differences in women's sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator". Accessed 9 July 2008.
- ↑ Kaufman, A; P Divasto, R Jackson, D Voorhees, J Christy (1980). "Male rape victims: noninstitutionalized assault". American Journal of Psychiatry 1980 (137): 221–223. PMID 7352580. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/2/221. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape http://www.pcar.org/about-sexual-violence/stats?cat=Child+Sexual+Abuse
- ↑ The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001 - 2002) - Table 02.08 Total recorded rapes
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine,. 2008-04-02. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childsexualabuse.html.
- ↑ Committee on Professional Practice and Standards (COPPS), Board of Professional Affairs (BPA), American Psychological Association (APA); Catherine Acuff, Ph.D.; Steven Bisbing, Ph.D.; Michael Gottlieb, Ph.D.; Lisa Grossman, Ph.D.; Jody Porter, Ph.D.; Richard Reichbart, Ph.D.; Steven Sparta, Ph.D.; and C. Eugene Walker, Ph.D (August 1999). "Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters". American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–593. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704. http://www.apa.org/practice/childprotection.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07. Lay summary – APA PsycNET (2008-05-07). "Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person.".
- ↑ Martin, J.; Anderson, J.; Romans, S.; Mullen, P; O'Shea, M (1993). "Asking about child sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two-stage survey". Child Abuse and Neglect 17 (3): 383–392. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(93)90061-9. PMID 8330225.
- ↑ Child sexual abuse definition from the NSPCC
- ↑ Roosa M.W., Reinholtz C., Angelini P.J. (1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27 (1): 65–76. PMID 10197407. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_1_27/ai_54422556/print.
- ↑ Widom C.S. (1999). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up," American Journal of Psychiatry; 156(8):1223-1229.
- ↑ Levitan, R. D., N. A. Rector, Sheldon, T., & Goering, P. (2003). "Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity," Depression & Anxiety; 17, 34-42.
- ↑ Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J. (2000). "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment". 15 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 489: 2000. doi:10.1177/088626000015005003. http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/5/489.
- ↑ Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Slutske WS, Bierut LJ, Statham DB et al. (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study". Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID 10722174. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=26191.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 208. ISBN 0393313565.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Julia Whealin, Ph.D. (2007-05-22). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/child-sexual-abuse.asp.
- ↑ David Finkelhor (summer/fall 1994). "Current Information on the Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse" (PDF). The Future of Children (1994) 4(2): 31-53. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/VS75.pdf.
- ↑ Crimes against Children Research Center
- ↑ Family Research Laboratory
- ↑ Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases". Child Abuse & Neglect (Elsevier Science Ltd.) 21 (4): 391–398. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. PMID 9134267. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7N-3SWVJJ8-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3bf4125ab05f663f306a1ca792f43398.
Further reading Edit
- Wishart, G.D. (2003). "The Sexual Abuse of People with Learning Difficulties: Do We Need A Social Model Approach To Vulnerability?", Journal of Adult Protection, Volume 5 (Issue 3).
- Crimestoppers in the UK
- PAVE: Promoting Awareness, Victim Empowerment
- Angela Rose
- Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network, the United States' largest anti-sexual assault organization.
- Sexual Assault Care Centre Scarborough, An extensive resource for victims/survivors of sexual assault.
- The Awareness Center, Inc. (Jewish Coalition Against Sexual Abuse/Assault)
- The Victim Rights Law Center (The National Pioneer of Legal Services to Victims of Sexual Assault)
- FaithTrust Institute
Support and healing organizationsEdit
- After Silence, online support group and forums and chat room for survivors of rape and sexual abuse, and their supporters.
- Pandora's Aquarium, an online support group, message board, and chat room for sexual assault survivors and their supporters.
- Support for Victims and Their Family, Support for Victims and Their Family
- Healing Through Creativity an organization that holds a creativity event each year in WV and has an online support message board and chat room
- National Sexual Assault Hotlines, provide help by phone and online. Both are free, safe and confidential and operated by RAINN.
- False Accusations of Sexual Abuse Support resources and first-hand reports.
- Ekuus Foundation - Therapy Resort with horses, for sexually abused victims Ekuus was created with intent to advance psychological recovery of those who suffer from the trauma caused by sexual abuse.
- Sexual assault support
- Outrage - an online support network through Twitter (SupportOutrage) and Facebook (Outrage)
Research and informationEdit
- Sexual Assault Care Centre Scarborough - An extensive resource for victims/survivors of rape/sexual assault
- Award Winning Documentary on Sexual Assault and Healing
- Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder- research on sexual assault
- U.S. Army Sexual Assault Prevention & Response Program
- Sexual Assault Statistics
- RAINN statistics on sexual assault
- NOW statistics on violence against women
- Survivor Safehouse An extensive resource site for victims/survivors of female perpetrated sexual abuse