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The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, was adopted by the United Nations in Palermo, Italy in 2000. It is also referred to as the Smuggling protocol. It is one of the two Palermo protocols, the other one being the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children
The Smuggling Protocol entered into force on 28 January 2004. By 2006 the protocol had been signed by 112 states, and ratified by 104.
The Protocol is aimed at the protection of rights of migrants and the reduction of the power and influence of organized criminal groups that abuse migrants. It emphasizes the need to provide migrants with humane treatment, and the need for comprehensive international approaches to combating people smuggling, including socio-economic measures that address the root causes of migration.