- take advantage of their client or patient's trust
- exploit their vulnerability
- do not act in their best interests
- fail to keep professional boundaries
Abuse may be:
Professional abuse always involves:
Professionals can abuse in three ways:
- nonfeasance - ignore and take no indicated action - neglect.
- misfeasance - take inappropriate action or give intentionally incorrect advice.
- malfeasance - hostile, aggressive action taken to injure the client's interests.
- Dorpat TL Gaslighting, the Double Whammy, Interrogation and Other Methods of Covert Control in Psychotherapy and Analysis (1996)
- Penfold, PS Sexual Abuse by Health Professionals: A Personal Search for Meaning and Healing (1998)
- Peterson MR At Personal Risk: Boundary Violations in Professional-Client Relationships (1992)
- Richardson S Cunningham M Broken Boundaries - stories of betrayal in relationships of care (2008)
- Sheehan MJ Eliminating professional abuse by managers - Chapter 12 of Bullying: from backyard to boardroom (1996)
- Blunden F, Nash J Tackling abuse of patients and clients - the work of POPAN The Journal of Adult Protection Volume 1, Number 1 / August 1999
- Britton AH Sexual Abuse in the Professional Relationship - Hamline Law Review 11 (1988): 247-280.
- Khele S Symons C Wheeler S An analysis of complaints to the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 1996-2006 Volume 8, Issue 2 June 2008 , pages 124 - 132
- Kumar S Client empowerment in psychiatry and the professional abuse of clients: where do we stand?- The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 2000;30(1):61-70
- Namore AH, Floyd A Teachers taking professional abuse from principals: Practice that's so bad it must violate a school's core values - Education Digest 71(2), 44–49 Oct 2005
- Polier HJ Professional abuse of children: Responsibility for the delivery of services American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1975 Apr;45(3):357-62.
- Abuse of power
- Harold Shipman
- Institutional abuse
- Medical abuse
- Professional ethics
- Professional negligence in English Law
- Professional responsibility
- WITNESS against abuse by health & care workers (formerly known as Prevention of Professional Abuse Network (POPAN))
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