Marocchinate (Italian: plural of marocchinata, roughly translatable as "Moroccans' deeds") is a term applied to the mass rape and killings committed during World War II after the Battle of Monte Cassino in Italy by Goumiers, Moroccan colonial troops of the French Expeditionary Corps (FEC)), commanded by General Alphonse Juin.
Goumiers were colonial irregular troops forming the "Goums Marocains", approximately company-sized units rather loosely grouped in "Tabors" (battalions) and Groups (regiments), three of whom (1st, 3rd, 4th Groupements de Tabors) served in the FEC along with the four regular divisions: the 1st Free French Division, the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division, the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division and the 4th Moroccan Mountain Division . The "Goums Marocains" were commanded by General Augustin Guillaume.
On May 14, 1944, the Goumiers travelled over seemingly impassable terrain in the Aurunci Mountains, outflanked the German defence in the adjacent Liri valley materially assisting British XIII Corps to break the Gustav Line and advance to the next Wehrmacht prepared defensive position, the Hitler Line.
General Alphonse Juin allegedly declared before the battle, "For fifty hours you will be the absolute masters of what you will find beyond the enemy. Nobody will punish you for what you will do, nobody will ask you about what you will get up to."
The Rape Edit
Montecassino was captured by the Allies on May 18, 1944. The next night, thousands of Goumiers and other colonial troops scoured the slopes of the hills surrounding the town and the villages of Ciociaria (South Latium). Over 2,000 women, ranging in age from eleven to 86, suffered from violence, when village after village came under control of the Goumiers. Civilian men who tried to protect their wives and daughters were murdered without mercy. The number of men killed has been estimated at roughly 800.
The mayor of Esperia, a comune in the Province of Frosinone, reported that in his town, 700 women out of 2,500 inhabitants were raped and that some had died as a result. According to Italian sources, more than 7,000 Italian civilians, including women, children and some men, were raped by Goumiers.
The rape in cinema and literature Edit
The movie Two Women (La Ciociara), directed by Vittorio de Sica and starring Sophia Loren was made after this book. In 1960, Loren won the Academy Award for Best Actress. This was the first time an actress won an Academy award for a non-English-speaking role.
- ↑ also known as CEFI from the French title.
- ↑ War Crimes in Ciociaria
- ↑ http://legislature.camera.it/_dati/leg01/lavori/stenografici/sed0890/sed0890.pdf
- ↑ "1952: Il caso delle “marocchinate” al Parlamento". http://www.cassino2000.com/cdsc/studi/archivio/n07/n07p09.html. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- ↑ Mamma Ciociara; La Mamma Ciociara
- Allan Peterson, San Diego Reader, 1998, "Pizza Man's Atrocity Hunt" (Anecdotal allegations of war crimes committed by Goumiers in Italy
- Holland, James (2008). Italy's Sorrow - A year of war, 1944-45. London: Harper Press. ISBN 9780007176458.
- Augustin-Leon Guillaume's Goums in a Modern War (it praises the fighting ability in difficult terrain and "Unfortunately for the Goumiers, their military success did not prevent their fearsome reputation from taking its toll as exceptional numbers of Moroccans were executed—many without trial—for allegedly murdering, raping, and pillaging their way across the Italian countryside.")
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- (Template:ISO 639 name fr) Le corps expéditionnaire français en Italie - Violences des « libérateurs » durant l’été 1944
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- International News Electronic Telegraph Sunday 11 May 1997 ; Italian women win cash for wartime rapes By Bruce Johnston
- (Template:ISO 639 name fr) Comments about the mass rape in Ciociaria, with video from Two Women (the rape by the goumiers)
- Template:It icon Acts of the Italian parlament
- Template:It icon The mass rape of the Allies
- Template:It icon 'Marocchinate'- Rape of the Italians (unsourced text)
- Template:It icon New researches about Italian women raped in the Second World War
- Template:It icon La Ciociara and the others
- Template:It icon Juin's Moroccans "redeem" the honor of Free France
- Template:It icon Marocchinate
- Template:It icon Deliberation in the Italian Parliament, war crimes in Ciociaria (April 7, 1952)
- Template:It icon Senate of the Italian Republic: project of law for the vicims of war rapes. July 25, 1996
- Template:It icon Cassino 1943-44. La memoria
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- Template:It icon Documentary broadcasted by the Italian Television (RAI3). Videos, articles, documents and sources.
- (Template:ISO 639 name fr) Les crimes de guerre du CEF durant la campagne d'Italie
- Two Women (La Ciociara) at the Internet Movie Database.
- Google books: marocchinatefr:Crimes de 1944 en Ciociarie