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Laws regarding child pornography

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94 of 187 Interpol member states had laws specifically addressing child pornography as of 2008.[1][2] Of those 94 countries, 58 criminalized possession of child pornography regardless of intent to distribute.[1] This figure does not count legislation outlawing all pornography as being "specific" to child pornography;[1] figures also including non-specific bans on all pornography would therefore be higher if available.

Convictions for possessing child pornography also usually include prison sentences, but those sentences are often converted to probation for first-time offenders.[3] Some nations such as Canada and Australia have laws banning cartoon, manga or written child pornography and others require ISPs (Internet Service Providers) to monitor internet traffic to detect it.[4][5][6]

The United Nations Optional Protocol on the Rights of the Child requires states to outlaw the "producing, distributing, disseminating, importing, exporting, offering, selling or possessing for the above purposes" of child pornography.[7] The Council of Europe's Cybercrime Convention, and the EU Framework Decision that became active in 2006, require signatory or member states to criminalize all aspects of child pornography.[3] Article 34 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) stated that all signatories shall take appropriate measures to prevent the exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

International treatiesEdit

International obligations to pass specific laws against child pornography "punishable by appropriate penalties that take into account their grave nature" as well as enable extradition, mutual assistance in investigation, and seizure of property were mandated by the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

Some of the negotiations and reviews of the process took place at the World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children held in 1996 and 2001.[8]

National lawsEdit

AlbaniaEdit

The production and distribution of child pornography is illegal in Albania and punishable by a fine of 1 million leks to 5 million leks and a prison sentence of 1 to 5 years. It is unknown if simple possession of child pornography is illegal.[9]

AndorraEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Andorra and punishable by up to 4 years in prison.[10]

ArgentinaEdit

The law in Argentina does not prohibit the simple possession of child pornography, but child pornography possession with the intent to distribute is punishable by imprisonment ranging from 4 months to 2 years. Production and distribution of child pornography is illegal and punishable by between 6 months and 4 years in prison.[11]

ArmeniaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Armenia and punishable by up to 7 years in prison.[12]

AustraliaEdit

The maximum penalty is 10 years jail and/or a $120,000 fine. People have been successfully prosecuted after describing acts of abuse via SMS.[4] Operation Auxin in September 2004 led to the arrest of almost 200 people on charges of child pornography, and "sting" operations are common.

In December 2008, a Sydney man was convicted with possessing child pornography after sexually explicit pictures of children characters from The Simpsons were found on his computer. The NSW Supreme Court upheld a Local Court decision that the animated Simpsons characters "depicted", and thus "could be considered", real people.[13]

Also in March 2011, a Tasmanian man was convicted with possessing child pornography after police investigators discovered an electronic copy of The Pearl by Anonymous on his computer. The Pearl is available for purchase within Australia and published by Harper Collins.[14]

BelarusEdit

The law in Belarus does not prohibit the simple possession of child pornography,[15] but production and distribution of pornographic materials depicting a minor is illegal and punishable by up to 13 years in prison.[16]

BelizeEdit

The law in Belize does not prohibit the simple possession of child pornography.[17] It is unclear if distribution of child pornography is illegal.

BeninEdit

The law in Benin does not prohibit child pornography.[18]

BrazilEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Brazil, but not in neighboring Argentina. Level of enforcement has historically varied by courts. Attempting to gain access to child pornography over the internet possibly could result in a 5 year sentence in prison and or a fine of up to R$500,000 or more.Template:Source?

BotswanaEdit

Possession of child pornography is illegal in Botswana and punishable with 5 to 15 years in prison.[19]

Burkina FasoEdit

Possession of child pornography is illegal in Burkina Faso.[20]

BurundiEdit

Possession of child pornography is illegal in Burundi and punishable by fines and three to five years in prison.[21]

CameroonEdit

While there is no minimum age of consent in Cameroon, the law prohibits the use of children for the production of pornography. Distributing child pornography or any document that "could harm the dignity" of a child is punishable by 5 to 10 years of imprisonment and fines from 5 million CFA francs to 10 million CFA francs. It is not known if possession of child pornography is illegal.[22]

CanadaEdit

Canadian law forbids the production, distribution, and possession of child pornography. Possession of child pornography is punishable by up to 10 years in prison. Production and distribution of child pornography is punishable by up to 20 years in prison. Browsing for child pornography on the internet is punishable by up to 5 years in prison. Prohibitions cover visual representations of sexual activity by persons (real or imaginary) under the age of 18, depiction of their sexual organ/anal region for a sexual purpose, or any written material or visual representation that advocates child pornography offenses against a person under 18. There is an exception for material with artistic merit or an educational, scientific, or medical purpose. The law against simple possession of child pornography was declared void in British Columbia by a 1998 provincial court ruling but this decision was overturned two years later by the Canadian Supreme Court.[23] The high court further concluded that a "person" under the law could be either real or fictional and that the prohibition of written texts was potentially acceptable.[24][25] Cases have now been prosecuted in Canada involving anime and manga child pornography.[5]

Central African RepublicEdit

The law in the Central African Republic does not prohibit child pornography.[26]

ComorosEdit

Possession and production of child pornography is illegal in Comoros.[27]

Czech RepublicEdit

The possession, manufacturing, and distribution of child pornography is illegal in the Czech Republic and punishable by up to 8 years in prison.[28]

Republic of the CongoEdit

Child pornography in the Republic of the Congo is punishable by up to one year in prison and a fine of up to 500,000 CFA.[29]

Ivory CoastEdit

Using children for pornographic films, pictures, or events is illegal in Ivory Coast and is punishable by between one month and two years of imprisonment and a fine of FCFA 30,000 to 300,000.[30]

DjiboutiEdit

Under laws prohibiting attacks on "good morals", the sale, production, and distribution of all pornography, including child pornography, is illegal in Djibouti and punishable by one year in prison and a fine of up to DJF 200,000.[31]

Equatorial GuineaEdit

The law in Equatorial Guinea does not prohibit child pornography.[32]

EritreaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Eritrea.[33]

GabonEdit

The possession of all pornography, including child pornography, is illegal in Gabon and punishable by imprisonment from six months to one year and/or fines up to 222,000 CFA francs.[34]

The GambiaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in The Gambia and punishable by up to five years in prison.[35]

GermanyEdit

The production, distribution, possession and possession for sale of child pornography is illegal in Germany. A conviction for either one is punishable by up to 14 years imprisonment. Attempting to gain access to child pornography is punishable by up to 5 years of imprisonment.Template:Source?

GhanaEdit

While the law in Ghana does not specifically prohibit child pornography, it can be prosecuted as an "offense against public morals" which is punishable by a maximum of three years in prison and/or a fine ranging from 120 to 600 cedis.[36]

GuineaEdit

Child pornography in Guinea is illegal.[37]

Guinea-BissauEdit

The law in Guinea-Bissau does not prohibit child pornography.[38]

IcelandEdit

Possession of child pornography is illegal in Iceland and punishable by up to two years in prison.[39]

IndiaEdit

Child pornography in India is illegal. In February 2009, the Parliament of India passed the Information Technology Bill which made creation and transmission of child pornography illegal. The bill also enables India's law enforcement agencies to take action against those seeking child pornography. For example, browsing for child pornography on the internet can lead to a 5 year term in imprisonment and Rs. 1 million fine.[40]

IranEdit

All pornography, including child pornography, is illegal in Iran.[41]

JamaicaEdit

The protection, possession, importation, exportation, and distribution of child pornography is illegal in Jamaica and is punishable by a maximum penalty of 20 years in prison and a fine of J$500,000.[42]

JapanEdit

Possession of child pornography, including those depicting real children, is legal in Japan. Distribution of child pornography was made de jure illegal in 2003 after international pressure from the United Nations, UNICEF and other international organizations, although the law makes a distinction between hardcore pornography, and the softcore pornography that is widely available in Japan, including at konbini, or Japanese convenience stores, and junior idol and lolicon centers such as Akihabara and Nipponbashi.[43] Prosecutions have been made under the new law by Japan's powerful prosecutors under Japan's unique legal system, resulting in financial verdicts of up to ¥60,000, and with enforcement varying by prefecture.

KazakhstanEdit

The law in Kazakhstan does not prohibit the simple possession of child pornography.[44] In 2010, the government introduced a criminal statute on the production and distribution of child pornography. Those convicted face administrative penalties.[45]

LesothoEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Lesotho and is punishable by imprisonment of up to 2.5 years and/or a fine up to 30,000 maloti. In child pornography production cases where a child is trafficked, the offender faces up to life imprisonment and a fine of 2 million maloti.[46]

LiberiaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Liberia and is punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment.[47]

MadagascarEdit

The government in Madagascar in 2007 adopted a law modifying the criminal code to define child pornography, making it illegal. As of 2012, the laws have been used in court on several occasions but has not resulted in a conviction. Officials said the laws were often not uniformly interpreted or applies.[48]

MalaysiaEdit

Malaysia does not have specific legislation about child pornography. However, the offense of rape and other forms of child sex abuse are punishable under Section 376 and Section 376B of the Penal Code, as well as the Child Act 2001. The age of consent for sexual activity in Malaysia is 16 years and above for both males and females. [49]

MaliEdit

Child pornography is considered a form of indecent assault under the criminal code in Mali and is punishable by 5 to 20 years in prison.[50]

MauritaniaEdit

Possession of child pornography is illegal in Mauritania with penalties of two months to one year in prison and a 160,000 to 300,000 ouguiya fine.[51]

MauritiusEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Mauritius.[52]

MonacoEdit

Production and possession of child pornography is illegal in Monaco.[53] Since April 2009, the government of Monaco uses a list established by the Internet Watch Foundation to block access to websites containing child pornography.[54]

MozambiqueEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Mozambique but appears to be rarely prosecuted. There were no reports of prosecutions for child pornography in 2011.[55]

NamibiaEdit

Production and possession of child pornography is illegal in Namibia.[56]

NetherlandsEdit

Production, possession, and distribution of child pornography is illegal in the Netherlands and punishable by up to 8 years in prison. Accessing child pornography on the Internet is punishable by up to 4 years in prison.[57]

New ZealandEdit

Browsing for or attempting to privately gain access to child pornography is illegal in New Zealand and could possibly face up to a 10 year sentence in federal prison and a fine up to $NZ10,000. The production of child pornography as well as distribution carries stricter punishments. Distribution carries a penalty of up to 14 years imprisonment.

NigerEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Niger and punishable by 3 to 5 years in prison.[58]

NigeriaEdit

The Child Rights Act makes child pornography in Nigeria, but not all states have implemented it.[59]

PalauEdit

The law in the Republic of Palau does not address child pornography.[60]

PakistanEdit

All pornography is illegal in Pakistan regardless of whether it is adult or child pornography.Template:Source?

Papua New GuineaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Papua New Guinea and punishable by 5 to 15 years in prison. Adult pornography is punishable by up to 4 years in prison.[61]

PhilippinesEdit

The Philippines passed Republic Act No. 9775 "Anti Child Pornography Act" in November 2009. The Act outlaws the production, creation, distribution and possession of child pornography. It also places obligations on mall operators and owners of commercial property to ensure that violations of child pornography are not being committed on their premises.

Controversially, the Act also creates obligations on internet-related service providers to ensure child pornography is not being stored or transmitted through their services. The Act requires internet service providers and internet hosting services to employ filtering software and to report child pornography violations within 7 days of discovery. How this obligation is to be implemented is yet to be seen. As of February 2010 the implementing rules and regulations were yet to be released by the National Telecommunications Commission and the Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography.

The law also expressly places obligations upon photo developers, information technology professionals, credit card companies, banks and anyone with direct knowledge of child pornography activities to report suspected child pornography materials and transaction within 7 days of discovery.

Prior to the Anti-Child Pornography Act, it was already illegal to use children for pornography and to sell and distribute that material. Under section 9 of Republic Act No. 7610 "Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act", its prohibited to hire, employ, use, persuade, induce or coerce a child into performing for obscene publications or pornographic materials.

In addition, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (Republic Act no. 9208) also outlaws the trafficking of children for the use in pornographic material.

PortugalEdit

Child pornography is statutorily criminalised in the Portuguese Criminal Code (Código Penal Português). The age of sexual content in Portugal is, in principle, 16 years of age. The participation of underage persons in pornographic scenes is subject to stricter standards however because they are subject to the general regime of adulthood, which was set by the Civil Code at the age of 18.

RussiaEdit

The law in Russia does not define child pornography or criminalize the possession of child pornography, making Russia only one of two G8 countries, the other being Japan, where possession of child pornography is legal. Criminal cases relating to child pornography are often dismissed due to the lack of clear standards and, when a court convicts a suspect, it often imposes a minimum sentence such as probation.[62]

RwandaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Rwanda and punishable by 5 to 10 years in prison and a fine of 200,000 to 500,000 Rwandan francs.[63]

São Tomé and PríncipeEdit

The law in São Tomé and Príncipe does not prohibit child pornography.[64]

Saudi ArabiaEdit

All child pornography is illegal in Saudi Arabia, and the law makes no distinction between adult pornography and child pornography.[65]

SenegalEdit

All pornography, including child pornography, is illegal in Senegal.[66]

Sierra LeoneEdit

While the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender, and Children’s Issues has indicated child pornography cases are covered under the Child Rights Act of 2007, which prohibits "cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment" of children, the law in Siera Leone does not prohibit child pornography. As of 2012, there is no record of anyone ever having been charged or convicted of child pornography.[67]

SomaliaEdit

The law in Somalia does not prohibit child pornography.[68]

South AfricaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in South Africa and is punishable by fines and up to 10 years in prison.[69]

South KoreaEdit

The law in South Korea does not prohibit simple possession of child pornography.[70] However, possession of child pornography is illegal if it is for the purpose of selling, renting, or distributing it for profit. This, and the production of child pornography, is punishable by up to 7 years in prison and a fine up to 20 million won.[71]

South SudanEdit

The law in South Sudan does not prohibit child pornography.[72]

SudanEdit

All pornography, including child pornography, is illegal in Sudan.[73]

SwedenEdit

Presumed illegal prior to 1971. Legal from 1971-1980. Now still illegal. The National Library of Sweden experienced a dispute regarding the alleged collection due to their legal obligation to archive all material printed on Swedish soil.[74][75] This became publicized as activist groups Hand i Hand and Föreningen Anhöriga Till Sexuellt Utnyttjade Barn became involved.[76]

SyriaEdit

Child pornography is considered a trafficking crime in Syria, but is unclear if this includes simple possession. The penalties for child pornography are also unknown and it is unclear if anyone was ever prosecuted for child pornography.[77]

TaiwanEdit

Child and Adolescent Sex Exploitation Prevention Act criminalized the production, broadcast, distribution, exhibition of child pornography. Simple possession of such materials without justifiable cause is punishable by fines.Template:Source?

ThailandEdit

The production, distribution, import, or export of child pornography is illegal in Thailand and punishable by a maximum of 3 years in prison and not more than 6,000 baht.[78] The law does not prohibit simple possession of child pornography.[79]

TurkeyEdit

The law in Turkey does not prohibit simple possession of child pornography.[80] Production and disstribution of child pornography is illegal and is punishable by imprisonment of 6 months to 2 years as well as a fine.[81]

TogoEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Togo and is punishable by 5 to 10 years in prison.[82]

UgandaEdit

The law in Uganda does not prohibit child pornography.[83]

UkraineEdit

The law in Ukraine does not prohibit simple possession of child pornography,[84] but courts have the authority to limit access to websites which distribute child pornography and to impose financial penalties and prison sentences for those running the websites.

Nina Karpachova, the Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights, said in June 2011 that a significant amount of child pornography available on the Internet originates in Ukraine. It is believed the child pornography market in Ukraine is worth about $100 million per year.[85]

United KingdomEdit

In the United Kingdom, it is illegal to take, make, distribute, show or possess an indecent image of a child. In the context of digital media, saving an indecent image to a computer's hard drive is considered to be "making" the image, as it causes a copy to exist which did not exist before.[86] Indecency is to be interpreted by a jury, who should apply the recognised standards of propriety. A child in this context is a person who has not reached the age of 18.

United StatesEdit

Although child pornography may also be obscene, a legal term that refers to offensive or violent forms of pornography that have been declared by decisions by the US Supreme Court to be outside the protection of the First Amendment regarding free speech,[87] it is defined differently from obscenity. Federal Sentencing Guidelines regarding child pornography differentiate between production, distribution and purchasing/receiving, and also include variations in severity based on the age of the child involved in the materials, with significant increases in penalties when the offense involves a prepubescent child or a child under the age of 12. The punishments are usually very severe normally ranging from 5 to 40 years imprisonment. The US laws against child pornography are always enforced and among the harshest in the world. [88]

VietnamEdit

The production, distribution, dissemination, and sale of child pornography is illegal in Vietnam and is punishable by 3 to 10 years in prison. It is unknown if simple possession of child pornography is illegal.[89]

ZambiaEdit

Child pornography is illegal in Zambia with penalties of up to life imprisonment.[90]

ZimbabweEdit

While it appears the law in Zimbabwe does not specifically prohibit child pornography, a person in possession of child pornography can be charged with public indecency which is punishable by a fine of $600, imprisonment up to six months, or both.[91]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review, 2008
  2. "Child Pornography Not a Crime in Most Countries" (PDF). International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. 2006. http://www.icmec.org/en_X1/pdf/SummerNewsletter2006formatted.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Akdeniz, Yaman (2008). Internet child pornography and the law: national and international responses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. p. 11. ISBN 0-7546-2297-5.
  4. 4.0 4.1 AFP (2007-07-17). "Queensland man charged over SMS child pornography". http://www.afp.gov.au/media_releases/national/2007/queensland_man_charged_over_sms_child_pornography.html.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Canadian Arrested for Importing Loli-porn Manga (March 4, 2005, Anime News Network). Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  6. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9775
  7. Article 3, (1)(c)
  8. World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
  9. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Albania
  10. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Andorra
  11. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Argentina
  12. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Armenia
  13. "Simpsons cartoon rip-off is child porn: judge". The Age. 2008-12-08. http://www.theage.com.au/national/simpsons-cartoon-ripoff-is-child-porn-judge-20081208-6tmk.html. Retrieved 2009-11-18. "A NSW Supreme Court judge has ruled an internet cartoon in which lookalike child characters from The Simpsons engage in sexual acts is child pornography."
  14. Tasmanian alderman David Traynor gets child porn conviction for book still sold in Australia The Australian. 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2011-04-7
  15. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  16. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Belarus
  17. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  18. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Benin
  19. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Botswana
  20. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Burkina Faso
  21. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Burundi
  22. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Cameroon
  23. R v Sharpe, [1] (Supreme Court of British Columbia January 13, 1999). “As s-s.(4) is in violation of s.2(b) of the Charter and is not justified under s.1, s-s.(4) must be and is declared void.”
  24. R v Sharpe, [2] (Supreme Court of Canada January 26, 2001). “The reach of the proscription is further broadened by extending it to the depiction of both real and imaginary persons.”
  25. R v Sharpe, [3] (Supreme Court of Canada January 26, 2001). “...materials that advocate or counsel sexual offences with children may qualify”
  26. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2011/af/186178.htm 2011 Human Rights Reports: Central African Republic]
  27. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2011/af/186182.htm 2011 Human Rights Reports: Comoros]
  28. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Czech Republic
  29. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2011/af/186185.htm 2011 Human Rights Reports: Republic of the Congo]
  30. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Cote d'Ivoire
  31. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Djibouti
  32. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Equatorial Guinea
  33. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Eritrea
  34. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Gabon
  35. 2011 Human Rights Reports: The Gambia
  36. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Ghana
  37. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Guinea
  38. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Guinea-Bissau
  39. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Iceland
  40. Swati Deshpande (2009-02-16). "Browsing child porn will land you in jail". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Browsing-child-porn-will-land-you-in-jail/articleshow/4134097.cms. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  41. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Iran
  42. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Jamaica
  43. http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/H11/H11HO052.html
  44. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  45. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Kazakhstan
  46. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Lesotho
  47. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Liberia
  48. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Madagascar
  49. http://www.interpol.int/public/children/sexualabuse/nationallaws/csamalaysia.pdf
  50. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Mali
  51. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Mauritania
  52. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Mauritius
  53. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  54. Fight against child pornography
  55. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Mozambique
  56. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Namibia
  57. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Netherlands
  58. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Niger
  59. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Nigeria
  60. 2011 Human Rights Report: Palau
  61. 2011 Human Rights Report: Papua New Guinea
  62. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Russia
  63. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Rwanda
  64. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Sao Tome and Principe
  65. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Saudi Arabia
  66. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Senegal
  67. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Sierra Leone
  68. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Somalia
  69. 2011 Human Rights Reports: South Africa
  70. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  71. 2011 Human Rights Reports: South Korea
  72. 2011 Human Rights Reports: South Sudan
  73. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Sudan
  74. David Landes of Swedish "The Local": Swedish national library in child porn scandal January 21, 2009
  75. KB:s innehav av barnporr kartlagt (Swedish)
  76. Peter Vinthagen Simpson of Swedish "The Local": Swedish national library reported for child porn April 6, 2009
  77. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Syria
  78. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Thailand
  79. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  80. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  81. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Turkey
  82. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Togo
  83. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Uganda
  84. International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  85. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Ukraine
  86. Internet Watch Foundation - R v Bowden http://www.iwf.org.uk/police/page.99.209.htm
  87. "Remarks of Arnold I Burns Before the Florida Law Enforcement Committee on Obscenity, Organized Crime and Child Pornography". NCJ 109133. National Institute of Justice. 1987-12-03. http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=109133.
  88. Sex Offenses Against Children: Findings and Recommendations Regarding Federal Penalties (as directed in the Sex Crimes Against Children Prevention Act of 1995, Section 6, Public Law 104-71). United States Sentencing Commission. June 1996. pp. p9. http://www.ussc.gov/r_congress/SCAC.HTM.
  89. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Vietnam
  90. 2011 Human Rights Reports: Zambia
  91. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2011/af/186257.htm 2011 Human Rights Reports: Zimbabwe]

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